The diversity of art in Bali is like an important component in the civilization of the Balinese people who are so famous for their customs and culture.
The arts in the form of theater, dance, visual arts, sculpture and so on in Bali are still very strong. Arts such as dance and theater do not only serve as entertainment.
Some of them become complementary components of religious rituals or are even positioned as rituals themselves.
This diversity of functions makes Balinese art so rich in variety and variety. One of the tangible manifestations can be seen in the diversity that exists in Balinese mask crafts.
Balinese Mask Art
Balinese masks are made of wood. Types of wood that are usually used as materials for making masks include ylang and pule.
In the process, there are several stages of carving that must be passed until it finally becomes a mask. In addition, the existence of certain standards in describing the character’s character makes the mask makers have to have special skills.
This art has existed since prehistoric times, usually this art is often found in the community who adheres to animism and dynamism beliefs.
The people there also believe that masks that are used as displays and dance masks can ward off evil, cure disease, bring rain, and so on.
Types of Balinese Masks
According to the general type, consists of;
- Hard mask (fighter figure)
- Old mask (elder figure)
- Bondres mask (common people)
- Queen’s mask (nobles)
According to the specific type, consisting of;
- Calonarang mask
- Jauk mask
- Telek mask
The calonarang mask, showing an ugly figure, with fangs and wide eyes, is a symbol of evil.
The jauk mask, shaped between the transition of a human and a giant with a rough character and represents a creature that helps the barong in dealing with the rangda.
Telek mask, is also an ally figure of the barong but has a subtle character and face.
Sculpture (masks) That Synergize With Performing Arts (dance)
Historically, Balinese mask dances have actually existed since the reign of King Jaya Pangus, which was around the X century. This is stated in the collection of Jaya Pangus inscriptions which state that there are performances that use masks or face coverings.
The Blantih inscription (1059 AD) also reveals that masks are well known and are often used as props in a performance.
There is also another inscription, namely Snake Plasraya which states that the government of Dalem Waturenggong in Gelgel (1460-1550) conquered the Blambangan Kingdom, so several items were confiscated, one of which was a mask chest.
The Function and Meaning of Balinese Mask Dance
The function of the mask performance is as an accompaniment for ceremonies and ceremonies in temples and outside temples such as the Dewa Yadnya ceremony, the Rsi Yandya ceremony, the human ceremony and the Pitra Yadnya ceremony.
Meanwhile, what is staged at the Pitra Yadnya ceremony, which is like a mask show, which often takes the dragon banda play at the nyambutin ceremony, generally takes the birth of Kebo Iwa and others.
Balinese Mask Dance Group
In Bali, the art of masks is divided into three groups, including;
Guardian Mask (sacred mask)
Topeng Bebali (mask dance introduction to traditional ceremonies)
Topeng Bali-balihan beurra (a secular mask dance performance or just for entertainment)
Types of Balinese Mask Dramatari
In Balinese drama dance performances there are three forms, namely;
- Pajegan Mask
Pajegan mask is one of the arts that belongs to the Wali mask group. Where it serves as a means of religious ceremonies. Generally, Pajegan masks are performed by a dancer who has to play all the roles in the story.
The Pajegan mask dancer must be someone who has a high spiritual level. Because, he will carry out a big task and responsibility. Where he also has to enlighten the audience about the essence of the ceremony, the purpose of the ceremony, and what the consequences will be if the ceremony is not carried out.
- Panca Mask
The Panca mask is performed by five dancers. Initially, this dance appeared in Denpasar around 1915 ago. Then this dance began to develop into a Sapta mask. In the Sapta mask dance there are additional Putri and Condong dancers.
- Prembon Mask
The Prembon mask is a combination of the Panca, Bondres, and Arja masks. However, the elements of the show remain dominant. You could say this Prembon mask is a performing art that is still young and prioritizes the appearance of funny characters to convey fresh humor to the audience.
Over time, Balinese masks have not only become an important tool in performing Balinese mask dance performances.
Balinese masks have now been sold freely for tourists who vacation in Bali. Don’t forget to bring this one souvenir as a souvenir when you finish your vacation in Bali.
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